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histone deacetylases HDACs inhibitors like vorinostat, belinostat, panobinostat and trichostatin A, 21 cardiovascular diseases 22 e.g. hydroxyurea, 24 Alzheimer s, 25 malaria 26, 27 e.g.
desferrioxamine B, fosmidomycin, siderophores 28 and allergic diseases.
29 The wide biological application of hydroxamates necessitates the review of its synthesis and biological applications. General Synthesis of Weinreb Amides Hydroxamic acids are prepared usually from esters or acid chlorides or carboxylic acids.2.1.
Synthesis of Benzohydroxamic Acid 3 The synthesis of compound 3 was achieved by reacting methyl benzoate 1 and hydroxylamine 2. Synthesis of Hydroxamates Using N, N1, NII–trimethoxy-N, NI, NII-trimethyl Phosphorus Triamides 5 Nui et al 31 reported the conversion of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids, including sterically hindered substrates directly to hydroxamates using N, NI, NII-trimethoxy-N, NI, NII–trimethyl phosphorus triamide 5.
There are many more general synthetic routes that have been reported and cannot be described for lack of space but are mentioned in this review.
White et al 38 reported the synthesis of hydroxamates using Deoxo-fluor; Katritzky et al 39 reported the synthesis of N-alkyl, O-alkyl and O, N-dialkyl hydroxamic acids via acyl benzotriazole intermediates; Gissot et al 40 reported high yielding one step synthesis of hydoxamates from various un-activated esters including enolizable esters and chrial α-amino acid esters and peptides ; Woo et al 41 reported the conversion of sterically hindered carboxylic acids to N-methoxy-N-methyl amides using 1.1eq of methanesulphonyl chloride; Martinelli et al 42 reported the palladium catalysed amino carbonylation of anyl bromides into the corresponding Weinreb amides; Nemoto et al 43 also reported a one pot synthesis of α-siloxy weinreb amides from aldelydes using N, O-dimethly amine and a masked acyl cyamide reagent bearing a tert-butyl dimethyl silyl group. Synthesis of Anticancer Hydroxamates Most hydroxamates used in cancer chemotherapy acts as histone deacetylase HDAC inhibitors.
The reaction of carboxylic acid 1eq and 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine 1.2 eq in the presence of N-methyl morpholine 3 eq., THF at room temperature for 1-3 h gave the 4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine intermediate 20, compound 20 upon treatment with substituted hydroxylamine 1 eq at room temperature for 8 h gave the target product 21.
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