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Modifications were made afterwards and the test was administered to a different group of second-year students whose major was mechanical engineering (N = 45).
The results showed that the internal consistency (Cronbach's a = 0.72) and inter-rater reliability (Cohen's kappa = 0.83) of the CTEM test are acceptable.
Results show a higher content validity and preference by students for the HCTA.
The CCTT, however, takes less time to administer and score, which makes it easier to use the CCTT on a larger scale.
The findings overall suggest that the CTEM test can be used to measure the acquisition of domain-specific CT skills in E&M, and a good basis for future empirical research that focuses on the integration of CT skills within specific subject matter instruction.
A broader CT assessment framework is proposed and possible research questions that can be addressed through the CTEM test are discussed.
Research show that students grow in their CT abilities during college [5–8], but growth is slow and limited [4, 9–11].
There is however a lack of validated tests for CT development in Dutch speaking university students.
Moreover, most instruments are validated on a broad sample with people of diverse educational backgrounds.
The discipline-specific movement, with Mc Peck  as leading figure, considers CT to be dependent on the problem area or the discipline under consideration.